Table of Contents
Definitions for Environmental
Pollution Control Equipment
Common air pollution control equipment includes two phases - particulate
filtration and VOC control. Particulate filtration includes dry filters
or waterwash curtains to capture large coating particles while allowing
gases to pass freely. Proper filtration is required for VOC control
equipment to work efficiently.
VOC control equipment includes recovery systems, solvent destruction
systems, or concentrators. Recovery systems include carbon adsorption
barrels that trap the VOC gases and release clean air. When the carbon
is fully saturated, the contents are heated to vaporize the VOCs; the vapor
is then condensed into a separate container for reuse or disposal. These methods are useful if the solvent is high-priced and if the airstream
contains only a few solvent types that are compatible.
Solvent destruction systems are most popular. Destruction systems
pull solvent-laden air into a chamber where it is heated. At the
high temperature, the VOCs are converted to carbon dioxide and water. Systems can be regenerative, supplying heat back to the chamber to convert
incoming air; or recuperative, recovering heat for other uses. These
systems are most efficient when solvent concentrations are high.
Solvent concentration systems include rotary carbon adsorption or zeolite
systems. Rotary carbon adsorption involves a slightly heated air
stream passed through a rotating cylinder of carbon. The carbon strips
the VOCs from the air stream. Zeolites are natural materials that
can be formed to absorb selective molecules of VOCs. From either
carbon or zeolite systems, the air with concentrated VOCs is then passed
to a solvent destruction system.
Control technologies for NOx emissions from drying ovens include low
NOx burners and air staging systems. NOx burners recirculate the
emissions back to the combustion chamber. Air staging systems split
the combustion air into two streams; the first stage air begins combustion
and creates a reducing atmosphere, while the second stage completes combustion
and creates an oxidizing atmosphere.
Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability
Act (CERCLA) was enacted in 1980 as a response to the public outcry over
the problems at hazardous waste disposal sites. CERCLA provided EPA
with a vehicle for responding to cleanup of hazardous waste contamination
from accidental spills or from abandoned hazardous waste disposal sites.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are compounds made from combinations of carbon,
chlorine, and fluorine typically used as propellants, cleaners, or cooling
agents. CFCs are non-toxic to workers, and are non-flammable. The compounds are very stable in the lower atmosphere and can persist for
at least 100 years. When the molecules reach the upper atmosphere,
they deplete the ozone layer. Manufacturing of CFCs has been banned
in the US, and their use has been extremely restricted.
Conventional pollutants, as defined by the Clean Water Act, include
biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids (TSS), fecal coliform,
PH and oil and grease.
â€œCradle-to-graveâ€� symbolizes the idea of analyzing the life cycle of
a product from raw material extraction, manufacturing, use, and recycling
or disposal. Cradle-to-grave analysis can provide a better assessment
of a product's impact on the environment and indicate areas where pollution
prevention opportunities should be investigated.
Under the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) regulations,
the following compounds are considered to be criteria pollutants: particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, ozone, sulfur dioxides, carbon monoxide,
Guidelines and Standards
Effluent guidelines and standards are the basis for controlling the
discharge of pollutants in wastewater, from industrial facilities to waters
of the U.S., as well as from industrial facilities to POTWs. The
EPA developed the industry-specific, technology-based standards to cover
facilities performing similar operations that would use similar processes
for treatment. Individual states may develop additional standards
that would protect water quality in specific water bodies.
The technology-based and water quality based standards apply to facilities
that discharge pollutants from point sources (i.e., direct discharges),
such as pipes, tunnels, and other conduits, to waters of the U.S. Direct dischargers must obtain a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System (NPDES) permit authorizing their discharges. The technology-based
and water quality based standards form the basis of NPDES permit limitations
of wastewater that a facility may discharge. Industrial facilities
that discharge pollutants to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs), must
meet certain pretreatment standards and are also known as indirect dischargers. These facilities may be required to obtain a permit from the POTW.
The national technology-based standards, or effluent limitations guidelines,
establish a minimum level of treatment that is required for all dischargers
in an industry category based upon the application of various control technologies. Over time, as technology to better treat wastewater is developed, the effluent
guidelines may become stricter. Standards are different for both
existing and new facilities, and for direct and indirect dischargers.
Existing facilities that are direct dischargers are required to comply
with effluent limitations based on the best available technology economically
achievable (BAT) for toxic and nonconventional pollutants. For conventional
pollutants, the effluent limitations for existing facilities are based
on best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). New sources
that are direct dischargers must comply with New Source Performance Standards
(NSPS) which are based on the best available demonstrated control technology.
For indirect dischargers, categorical standards have been established. The Pretreatment Standards for Existing Sources (PSES) and Pretreatment
Standards for New Sources (PSNS) are equivalent to BAT and NSPS, respectively,
for direct dischargers.
Water quality based standards established by states are more stringent
than the technology-based limitations. They are applicable to direct
dischargers on a case-by-case basis when necessary to protect designated
uses for a specified receiving water. Designated uses include drinking
water supply, swimming, fishing, or navigation. In addition, the states
must develop an anti-degradation policy so as to conserve, maintain, and
protect existing uses and water quality of state waters, and to afford
special protection to high quality or ecologically unique waters.
The states may designate allowable concentrations of 126 listed toxic
pollutants in receiving water. States may also develop facility-specific
Individual Control Strategies (ICSs) to reduce discharges of toxic pollutants
to waterbodies impaired by point source discharges. Criteria for
the water quality standards are to be developed from the latest scientific
information on the concentrations and effects of specific pollutants on
aquatic life and human health.
An emergency response plan is a guidance manual outlining the emergency
response activities and notification processes that are to be followed
in the event of an emergency at a facility. Facilities may be subject
to Federal and State emergency response plan filing requirements. Facilities are encouraged to coordinate development of their emergency
response plan with relevant State and local agencies to ensure compliance
with any additional regulatory requirements at the State level.
Protection Agency (EPA)
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created
to protect human health and to safeguard the natural environment. EPA is responsible for establishing guidelines and standards and enforcing
environmental laws created by Congress.
Protection Agency (EPA) Authorized State Agency
An Authorized State Agency has been granted power by EPA to enforce
Federal environmental regulations and oversee environmental activities
within the State. States must demonstrate that their programs meet
Federal requirements. Authorized State agencies oversee duties associated
with non-hazardous solid waste management, permitting for air and water
releases, and emergency planning.
Air Pollutants (HAP)
Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) are air toxics that pose a significant
threat to human health and the environment. Common HAPs include benzene,
toluene, formaldehyde, mercury, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The
pollutants were first regulated by the 1970 Clean Air Act Amendments that
instructed EPA to create a list of HAPs and then issue national emissions
standards for those pollutants. Only eight substances were identified
as HAPs, and only seven national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants
(NESHAP) were promulgated by 1990.
Under the new Air Toxics program found in Title III of the Clean Air
Act Amendments of 1990, Congress established an initial list of 189 substances
to be regulated as HAPs. Rather than regulating individual pollutants
by establishing health-based standards, the new Air Toxics program grants
EPA the authority to regulate specific industrial major source categories
with NESHAP based on maximum achievable control technology (MACT) for each
source category. Sources not large enough to fall under the major
source requirements may still be regulated under the â€œareaâ€� source requirements
that will affect many small and mid-sized businesses and facilities. NESHAP and appropriate MACT standards are enforced through the Clean Air
Act Title V Operating Permit Program.
Major sources subject to NESHAP are defined as those facilities emitting,
or having the potential to emit, 10 tons per year or more of one HAP or
25 tons per year or more of multiple HAPs. Major sources are required
to comply with MACT standards. Area sources are defined as non-major
facilities that emit HAPs; categories that represent 90 percent of area
sources that emit the 30 most hazardous HAPs are first to be targeted. Area sources must comply with either MACT or the less stringent, generally
available control technology (GACT).
Each facility in a given source category must achieve a designated minimum
level of emissions reduction. This level is called the MACT Floor
and is a technology-based standard, rather than health-based. The
overall objective of the MACT standard is to achieve the maximum degree
of emissions reduction without unreasonable economic or other impacts. MACT Floors are different for new and existing facilities. New facilities
must achieve at least the emissions limitation of the best-controlled similar
source. Existing sources must meet the average emissions limitation
achieved by a percentage of the best performing sources in their category. After the MACT standards have been applied to a source category, EPA will
evaluate the remaining risk and may promulgate additional health-based
standards to further reduce HAP emissions.
Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC) are compounds made from carbon, chlorine,
fluorine, and hydrogen commonly used as replacements for chlorofluorocarbons
(CFC). While the compounds provide similar propellant, cleaning,
and cooling capabilities as CFCs, they are slightly less damaging to the
Heavy metals include mercury, lead, cadmium, and zinc. These materials
may be found in some coating material formulations, surface preparation
solutions, or as part of substrates. Concentrations of these materials
are limited in wastewater by the National Pollutant Discharge Emissions
Standards. The metals may enter wastewater discharges as a result
of phosphatizing rinses or from wet blasting of coatings materials.
and Characteristic Hazardous Wastes
Characteristic hazardous wastes are materials that exhibit toxicity,
reactivity, ignitability, and/or corrosivity. Materials with these
characteristics have been found to cause or contribute to an increase in
mortality or serious illness, or pose a hazard to human health or the environment
when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed or otherwise managed.
Listed hazardous wastes are materials specifically identified as hazardous
because they have exhibited characteristics of hazardous wastes, have been
found to be fatal to humans or to test animals, or contain toxic, carcinogenic,
mutagenic, or teratogenic constituents. Both individual materials
and categories of materials are listed as hazardous.
Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs)
Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPC) are appointed by State Emergency
Response Commissions (SERC) to prepare for and respond to local emergencies
regarding environmental issues, such as a hazardous spill or release. Each State can have numerous LEPCs to help better serve the areas of the
Different regulatory programs under the Clean Air Act have different
definitions for a major source and should be referred to when determining
applicability: the New Source Review Program (40CFR51.165), the Prevention
of Significant Deterioration Program (40CFR52.21), the National Emission
Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutatnts (40CFR63.2), and the State Operating
Permit Program (40CFR70.2). Major sources for purposes of the Air
Toxics program are defined as those facilities emitting, or having the
potential to emit, 10 tons per year or more of one hazardous air pollutants
(HAPs) or 25 tons per year or more of multiple HAPs.
Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) are informational fact sheets developed
for each commercially available chemical, compound, or substance. MSDSs provide general product information, physical components and characteristics
of the product, health risk information, fire and explosion warnings, product
reactivity data, spill and disposal procedures, storage and handling issues,
and personal protective equipment suggested when working with the material. MSDSs are to be made easily accessible to employees working with chemical
substances and to surrounding communities.
Achievable Control Technologies (MACT)
Maximum Achievable Control Technologies (MACT) are technologies used
for hazardous air pollutant abatement. These technologies thus establish
the minimum level of emissions reduction that facilities within a specific
category must achieve.
Concentration Limit (MCL)
The maximum concentration limit (MCL) determines the maximum amount
of a specific pollutant permitted to be released in wastewater streams. MCLs have been established for daily (eight-hour) and monthly average releases
of such pollutants as heavy metals, total toxic organics, and conventional
Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) establish maximum concentrations
for criteria air pollutants in specified geographical areas. These
pollutants include carbon monoxide (CO), lead (Pb), nitrogen dioxide (NO2),
particulate matter (PM-10), ozone (O3), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). To prevent established concentrations from being exceeded, State and local
governments may require air pollution controls on existing, new, and modified
industrial facilities; tighter standards on emissions from motor vehicles;
and the use of alternative fuels.
Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)
National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) establish
limits on emissions of hazardous air pollutants. NESHAPs are being
developed based on industry categories and target the HAPs mostly likely
present in these industry processes.
Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits limit
discharges of pollutants into water from point sources. Industrial
dischargers must obtain permits prior to releasing wastewater into receiving
Source Performance Standards (NSPS)
New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) under the Clean Water Act are
limitations on water pollutants discharged from recently constructed facilities. The standards are based on the Best Available Demonstrated Control Technology. Facilities may choose the type of wastewater treatment system that best
suit their needs as long as it meets the same cleaning ability of the best
available control technology.
New Source Performance Standards under the Clean Air Act are nationally
uniform emission standards for new stationary sources falling within particular
industrial categories. NSPSs are based on the pollution control technology
available to that category of industrial source but allow the affected
industries the flexibility to devise a cost-effective means of reducing
emissions. NSPSs are currently in place for the following industries
that perform organic surface coating: (1) metal furniture manufacturing;
(2) automobiles and light-duty trucks; (3) large appliances; (4) sheet
metal rolls and coils; and, (5) beverage cans.
Non-conventional pollutants under the Clean Water Act are defined as
any pollutants not classified as either toxic or conventional pollutants. EPA included this classification to account for developments in industry
and the changing characterization of possible water pollutants.
NOx are emissions of nitrogen oxides typically created during the combustion
of fuels during dry-off and curing stages of organic finishing.
Ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) are chemical compounds that harmfully
react with ozone to transform ozone into oxygen. The most common
ODSs are chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). These compounds transform ozone
into oxygen while continuously recycling chlorine within the atmosphere. The constant supply of chlorine in the atmosphere supports additional ozone
Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is charged
with promoting and protecting employee health, safety, and awareness. The mission of the OSHA is to save lives, prevent injuries and protect
the health of America's workers. OSHA inspects facilities for violations
of health and safety, and investigates employee complaints of violations.
Point source pollutants are direct wastewater discharges into national
water sources, such as rivers, lakes, and streams. Common discharge
sources of point source pollutants are pipes, ditches, channels, and sewer
Owned Treatment Works (POTWs)
Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) are treatment works owned by
a State, unit of local government, or Indian tribe, usually designed to
treat domestic wastewaters. POTWs are required to demonstrate that
industrial sources of toxic pollutants are in compliance with all of their
pretreatment requirements, including local limits.
Priority pollutants are hazardous or radioactive organic and inorganic
chemicals present in an environmental setting, such as air, water, or vegetation. These pollutants were identified by EPA as indicators of environmental
Pretreatment refers to reducing the amount of a pollutant, eliminating
a pollutant, or altering the nature of a pollutant in wastewater before
it is introduced into publicly owned treatment works (POTW). Under
Title III of the federal Clean Water Act (CWA), the EPA is required to
establish pretreatment standards that must be met by industrial facilities
before they discharge wastewater to publicly owned treatment works. Pretreatment standards target those pollutants that would interfere with
a POTW's operation, would not be susceptible to treatment by a POTW, or
would adversely impact POTW equipment and personnel.
POTWs are commonly referred to as municipal sewer systems. POTWs
store, treat, recycle, and reclaim municipal sewage and industrial wastes
of a liquid nature, and are required to have an National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System (NPDES) permit to discharge water from their systems
directly to creeks, rivers, or other waters. A NPDES permit regulates
the quality and quantity of water the POTW may discharge from its system. Facilities that discharge wastewater to POTWs are known as â€œindirectâ€� dischargers;
these facilities are not generally required to obtain an NPDES permit for
such discharges but are usually required to obtain a permit from the local
POTW. This permit will outline effluent limitations in terms of volume
and concentration of pollutants thus defining the pretreatment necessary
for the facility to perform. Facilities that discharge wastewater
directly to streams, creeks, or other bodies of water are called â€œdirectâ€�
dischargers; these facilities are required to obtain an NPDES permit for
Pretreatment programs are established on both the national and local
level. Restrictions have been placed substances in three categories: prohibited discharges, national categorical pretreatment standards and
local pollutant limits. An individual industrial facility may be
subject to some or all of these restrictions.
Certain wastewater discharges are prohibited for all industrial facilities
that discharge to POTWs because of the potential hazards these discharges
create. Specific prohibited discharges include:
National categorical pretreatment standards have been established for specific
industry categories and subcategories. These standards specify allowable
quantities or concentrations of pollutants or pollutant properties in wastewater
that may be discharged to a POTW by both existing and new industrial users. Over forty industrial categories, including metal finishing, are subject
to the categorical standards. These standards allow for the summation
of effluent streams typically found across a facility performing several
pollutants that would create a fire or explosion
pollutants that would cause corrosive structural damage to a POTW
solid or viscous pollutants that would obstruct flow in a POTW
pollutants that result in toxic gases, vapors, and fumes
oil and grease
Local pollutant limits protect against improper treatment at a POTW. These limits prevent industrial pollutants from flowing through a POTW
without receiving adequate treatment that would cause the POTW to violate
its NPDES permit. Pollutants that would inhibit or disrupt the POTW
operation and result in a violation of a POTW's NPDES permit are also restricted. Local limits are decided based on the equipment and treatment facilities
available at the POTW. Local limits are often reflected in agreements
between the POTW and individual industrial users. Such agreements
are effectively POTW use permits.
Some facilities may qualify for removal credits from authorized POTWs. The credits allow industrial users to increase the amounts of pollutants
they discharge to the POTW when the POTW is capable of treating and removing
the pollutant. The POTW treatment system must consistently and effectively
remove the pollutant through normal operations. Removal credits are
only available for facilities covered by national categorical pretreatment
Particulate matter (PM) is the term used for a mixture of solid particles
and liquid droplets found in the air. While individual particles
can not be seen with the naked eye, collectively they can appear as black
soot, dust clouds, or gray hazes. Particles originate from a variety
of sources in organic coating facilities, most often exhaust from drying
The characteristics, sources, and potential health effects of larger
or â€œcoarseâ€� particles and smaller or â€œfineâ€� particles are very different. Fine particles are those particles that are less than 2.5 microns in diameter. Fine particles result from fuel combustion. Fine particles can also
be formed in the atmosphere from gases such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen
oxides, and volatile organic compounds. Coarse particles are those
particles larger than 2.5 microns. Coarse particles are generally
emitted as dust from sources such as the desert, fields, vehicles traveling
on unpaved roads, and crushing and grinding operations.
Available Control Technology (RACT)
Reasonably available control technology (RACT) are air emission control
technologies that meet requirements for emission standards and are also
technically and economically feasible. RACT requirements apply to
stationary sources in ozone nonattainment areas and throughout an ozone
Rivers, lakes, oceans or other water courses that receive treated or
untreated waste waters.
Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA)
The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) amended the
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Comprehensive Environmental
Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Under SARA, remedial
actions of facilities were strengthened to include reporting of on-site
spills and releases.
SARA also includes the regulation more commonly referred to as the Emergency
Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA). This Act requires
planning and reporting on listed toxic chemicals to provide the public,
as well as EPA, with information on the storage and release of these chemicals
in their communities. EPCRA is generally recognized as a separate
statute independent of other issues contained in SARA.
Emergency Response Commissions (SERCs)
State Emergency Response Commissions (SERCs) are responsible for coordinating
emergency response activities within the State. By appointing local
emergency planning committees (LEPCs), the SERCs have the ability to serve
numerous areas within their State.
Standard Industry Classification (SIC) Codes
Standard Industry Classification (SIC) Codes designate industry categories
for commercial, government, and independently owned businesses. The
number groupings reflect the type of business, or the type of process or
service provided by the classified businesses. SIC codes range from
0110 to 9999. Fabricated metal products, which includes surface coating
operations, are listed under SIC code 3400, while metal coating and allied
services are listed more specifically as SIC code 3479.
Implementation Plan (SIP)
State Implementation Plans (SIP) are vehicles for implementing regulations
to comply with the Clean Air Act. SIPs identify sources of air pollution
and determine required reductions to meet and maintain the national ambient
air quality standards (NAAQS). In developing a SIP, each State is
first divided into air quality control regions, typically consisting of
several counties or a metro area and surrounding counties. Then the
State determines, through statistical data, whether or not, and by how
much, air pollution in each region exceeds the limits for each air quality
standard. Control requirements are imposed to reduce emissions from
the various sources in each area to achieve compliance. Each State
is responsible for creating its own SIP that must be approved by EPA before
becoming federally enforceable.
Suspended solids are small particles of solid pollutants that float
on the surface of, or are suspended in, sewage or other liquids.
Title V permitting is the mechanism by which EPA integrates all of the
federally applicable requirements of the Clean Air Act designed to reduce
emissions of air toxics, improve and maintain air quality, meet new source
requirements, and control the precursors of acid rain. The operating
permit program is administered by states under federally approved programs. A facility's operating permit will indicate the emissions standards and
operation limitations that it must follow in order to stay in compliance.
Toxic pollutants are those priority pollutants identified by EPA that
display toxic, hazardous characteristics.
Toxic organic chemicals include a variety of chemicals, such as polychlorinated
biphenyls (PCB) and dioxin, which are considered to be severely damaging
to human health, wildlife, and aquatic species. The toxic organics
are persistent in the environment, remaining chemically reactive for long
periods. The materials can accumulate in animal and fish tissue,
be absorbed in sediments, or find their way into drinking water supplies,
posing long-term health risks to humans. Toxic organics originate
from industrial discharges, including wastewater from organic finishing
facilities. The total toxic organics in wastestreams are regulated
by facility NPDES permits.
The Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) is a compilation of chemical procurement
and release data from manufacturing facilities in the US. TRI reports
are required for facilities with more than 10 full-time equivalent employees
and that use more than 1,000 pounds of a listed substance annually. Facilities are required to report hazardous, toxic, and ozone-depleting
chemicals used, and the amount of each released to the air, publicly owned
treatment works, receiving waters, landfills, and other disposal facilities. EPA maintains a database of records for public record.
Organic Compounds (VOC)
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) include a variety of chemicals, such
as formaldehyde, benzene, and perchloroethylene, that have relatively low
vapor pressures. VOCs are emitted as gases from liquid coating materials
containing organic solvents. VOC exposures can cause serious health
problems, and contribute to smog by promoting the creation of ground level
ozone. The VOC content of a coating material is typically represented
as the proportion of the coating that is VOCs, expressed as kilograms VOC
per liter of solids.
Pursuant to Title I of the Clean Air Act, national ambient air quality
standards (NAAQS) have been established for ozone. Thus, VOC emission
sources located in ozone nonattainment areas are subject to reduction. In addition, VOC emission sources located in ozone attainment areas must
maintain the established standards.
Major sources in ozone nonattainment areas are required to meet thresholds
for VOC emissions. In areas where ozone nonattainment is severe,
major sources may not emit more than 25 tons per year, those in areas where
ozone nonattainment is moderate to marginal may not emit more than 100
tons per year. Existing sources in the various areas are required
to control any increase in emissions, and in most cases are required to
achieve a continual decrease in VOC emissions. In areas where ozone
is a moderate to severe problem, all major sources must implement reasonably
available control technology (RACT) standards, which are the technology
and pollution controls that are most reasonably available and economically
feasible to achieve the lowest emission limit. In some cases, areas
with severe or extreme problems with ozone may require facilities to install
best available control technology (BACT) for control of VOC emissions. BACT must be used regardless of the economic feasibility.
New major sources or proposed expansion of existing major sources are
required to comply with new source review (NSR) provisions so that ozone
conditions do not grow worse. In nonattainment areas, facilities
must offset the new emission source by removing or reducing a greater amount
of emissions from another source or elsewhere on the same source and must
achieve the lowest achievable emission rate (LAER). In attainment
areas, facilities must install best available control technology (BACT).
||Benzene (including benzene from gasoline)
||Chloromethyl methyl ether
||Cresols/Cresylic acid (isomers and mixture)
||2,4-D, salts and esters
||N,N-Diethyl aniline (N,N-Dimethylaniline)
||Dimethyl carbamoyl chloride
||4,6-Dinitro-o-cresol, and salts
||Ethyl carbamate (Urethane)
||Ethyl chloride (Chloroethane)
||Ethylene dibromide (Dibromoethane)
||Ethylene imine (Aziridine)
||Ethylidene dichloride (1,1-Dichloroethane)
||Hydrogen fluoride (Hydrofluoric acid)
||Lindane (all isomers)
||Methyl bromide (Bromomethane)
||Methyl chloride (Chloromethane)
||Methyl chloroform (1,1,1-Trichloroethane)
||Methyl ethyl ketone (2-Butanone)
||Methyl iodide (Iodomethane)
||Methyl isobutyl ketone (Hexone)
||Methyl tert butyl ether
||4,4 -Methylene bis(2-chloroaniline)
||Methylene chloride (Dichloromethane)
||Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI)
||Polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclors)
||Propylene dichloride (1,2-Dichloropropane)
||1,2-Propylenimine (2-Methyl aziridine)
|| 2,4-Toluene diisocyanate
||Toxaphene (chlorinated camphene)
||Vinylidene chloride (1,1-Dichloroethylene)
||Xylenes (isomers and mixture)
||Arsenic Compounds (inorganic including arsine)
||Coke Oven Emissions
||Fine mineral fibers
||Polycyclic Organic Matter
||Radionuclides (including radon)